NYCHS Presentation Page 14 of 15

Jails for the 80s
NYC DOC Report


Critical factors in developing recommendations have been overall security-level needs, the type of space (cell or dorm) required for individual population groups, the desire to maximize "accessibility" for those deemed to benefit most and the objective of reducing "critical mass" of inmates through the creation of smaller, more flexible correctional "modules" whose program can change as population needs do.

The following is the recommended Space Utilization Program:

Summary of Actions
RIKERS ISLAND COMPLEXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
1. ARDC (C-74):Retain as housing for adolescent male detainees. Functionally "pair" facility into two 540-bed institutions which share support and program space on scheduled basis.

2. CIFW (C-73):Reprogram for use as housing for adolescent male detainees. Finish last 60 cells to maximize bedspace in institution.

3. HDM:Close and replace housing capacity elsewhere. Retain support system for use with Quads 1 and 2 of C-71.

4. C-71:Quads 1 and 2, together with the existing HDM support system (with additions as needed) will become a 496-bed male adult detainee facility.

Quads 3 and 4 will share the C-95 support system and be dedicated as the Department's new centralized Mental Health Center (capacity: 496 beds, including cadre).

Quad 5 will be linked to CIFM as described below.

5. AMKC (C-95)Rededicate for use as new Rikers Island Medical Services Center to replace RI Infirmary. Dorm space to become hospital wards plus multiple-occupancy space for mental health inpatients as required.

6. CIFM (C-76):Separate this facility into two institutions.

CIFM North will be a 620-bed male adult detainee institution composed of the 5th Quad from C-71, the Training Academy as support space, and the northernmost housing component of existing CIFM: 136 cells & 240 dorm beds.

CIFM South will remain an institution for sentenced male adults and adolescents.

BOROUGH HOUSES OF DETENTIONxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
General Objective:Use as points of entry to system for adult inmates. Provide space for all short term detainees and for classification of those expected to stay more than 7 days. Use for all inmates on trial and for special needs (e.g., civil, female).

Manhattan1. Complete and reopen the renovated Manhattan House of Detention for Men, which will provide up to 360 general confinement spaces for male adult detainees.

2. Build a second Manhattan detention center of approximately 500 beds to house detained and sentenced women in DOC's custody, and additional male adult detainees from Manhattan.

QueensContinue to utilize as space for male adult detainees from Queens. Provide additional program and recreation space and seal the building to provide additional security and address open court issues.

BrooklynContinue to utilize as space for male adult detainees from Brooklyn. Provide additional program and recreation space and seal the building to provide additional security and address open court issues. Build a 100 bed cadre dormitory to free up maximum-security cells now occupied by sentenced help.

BronxContinue to utilize as space for male adult detainees from the Bronx. Provide additional program and recreation space and seal the building. Reduce density of detainee dorms by housing fewer inmates in each.

Chart IV - 2


ARDC and the Women's House

Because of the burgeoning adolescent detainee population, which already fills almost half of the Women's House (C-73) as well as ARDC (C-74) and some space in CIFM, it is recommended that ARDC continue to house adolescents and that the Women's House of Detention (C-73), also be dedicated fully to this population. The Women's House is ideally suited for this re-use: it has adequate program space, is composed almost entirely of "Standard" outside cells, contains the Board of Education-run P.S. 233 which the adolescents already attend, is surrounded by a large outdoor recreation yard, and has sufficient capacity to provide for the expected adolescent population without the dedication of wasted, unused space.

Additional space alone is not the only requirement for meeting the needs of the projected adolescent detainee population. This, as we have noted previously, is a population with high rates of escape attempts, incidents and attempted suicides, requiring an intensive level of staff supervision and interaction with inmates. ARDC is poorly suited for this kind of management.

After extended discussions with past and present ARDC facility management personnel, it is recommended that a new operations plan be drawn for ARDC which functionally "pairs" the two housing wings of the facility, each of which will have a separate program function, to a central support system whose components - visiting, dining, library, and the like -- are shared on a scheduled basis by "ARDC North" and "ARDC South".


As described in the Physical Condition chapter, it is recommended that the House of Detention for Men on Rikers Island be phased out of the system and its housing blocks be demolished. However, HDM's support system - kitchen, new visit house, gymnasium - together with the limited administrative areas built initially for C-71 in the area between the two institutions can serve as a new support system for C-71's Quads One and Two after HDM is gone. Combined, they will provide an independent detention center of 496-bed capacity for long-term adult detainees.

In accordance with the goal of reducing the critical mass of inmates at the Department's institutions with 1000 or more beds wherever possible, further separation of C-71's housing quads is also envisioned. Quads Three and Four are planned as the locus of a new centralized mental health services center, designed to serve the needs of all detainees and sentenced prisoners in need of mental health services, in close proximity to the new Medical Services Unit planned for the adjacent C-95 facility.

Anna M. Kross Center (C-95)

The innovative re-use of this almost new and never fully activated building accomplishes several desirable purposes simultaneously: it makes full and appropriate use of a building which until now has been virtually vacant. It enables the Department to achieve the long-hoped-for replacement of the 47-year-old Rikers Island Infirmary with a Medical Services Center for the 1980s, while avoiding the prohibitive cost of new construction. It promises to reduce the high operating costs associated with rushing inmates to hospital emergency rooms and outposting staff to inmate patients whose after-care and convalescent needs are appropriately provided for in an Island setting. And its location, ancillary to the Third and Fourth Quads of C-71, means that related health and mental health service delivery components can be physically close to one another for the first time.

After a review of plans and specifications and a tour of the present building, the planning team, consultant architects and Montefiore health service personnel believe that C-95 could become the new Rikers Island Medical Services Unit. It contains a large clinic, never opened, which would form the basis for emergency service operations and admissions. A large storage area adjacent to the clinic is suitable for re-use as observation cubicles ancillary to emergency and triage functions. Some of the dorms could easily become the infirmary's wards; others could be converted to cells as appropriate on each dormitory floor there is a large "classroom" area adaptable to a treatment and nurses' station. In short, though it would represent a moderate to high level of capital expenditure, the reprogramming of this building for medical use is less expensive by far than the alternative of developing a new infirmary plus facing the major expenditures necessary to upgrade C-95 into an acceptable correctional institution.

Correctional Institution for Men (C-76)

CIFM presently houses close to 1700 sentenced adults and adolescents. Several options for "pairing" its housing wings into functionally separate but physically related facilities were explored, especially in light of the fact that the opening of two more borough institutions, the dedication of C-73 to a male population and the separation of C-71 into several institutions will create an increased demand for sentenced help and a shift in C-76's population out to detention institutions. Once again, the cost of duplicating Program forcing a very unconventional, but eminently workable, solution.

It is recommended that a corridor be constructed from the C-71 Fifth Quad to the present Training Academy and thence to the northernmost housing wing of CIFM, which contains 136 single cells and dormitory space for 240 inmates. Together, these buildings will compose a second Rikers Island male adult detainee facility, with capacity of 620. The Training Academy will be rededicated as receiving and program space for the new facility, and a new gymnasium will be built adjacent to it.

The new detention facility will be physically connected to CIFM at the southernmost part of the dormitory housing space, allowing flexible use of the dormitories either fully as detainee housing, in which event, cadre for the facility will be housed in CIFM, or partially as detainee housing and partially as living quarters for sentenced help. (In general, the planning team has sought to provide space for sentenced help within detention facilities on the ground that cadre should be under the direction of, and at the immediate disposal of, the facility commander in whose institution they work, so that emergencies and the like may be quickly attended to.)

With imaginative scheduling, the detention facility and the balance of CIFM ("CIFM South") can share some program areas, such as the chapel and possibly, visiting. Where it is clearly inappropriate for detained and sentenced inmates to commingle, the space will be duplicated. CIFM South will continue to house sentenced male prisoners, adult and adolescent.

Training Academy

The Training Academy will be relocated to one of the existing buildings at the northern end of the Island adjacent to the HDM complex. A specific location is still to be identified. Renovation will be undertaken to the extent necessary to provide modern, well-appointed classroom and program space, as well as administrative offices.


Manhattan (2), The Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens

It is recommended in the Action Plan which follows this chapter that a second Manhattan facility be built. Together with the three houses currently operating in Brooklyn, the Bronx and Queens and the renovated Manhattan House of Detention, the Department will have five borough detention centers. These borough facilities are intended to be the primary focus of activity for all but the longest-term adult detainees.

The borough houses will provide the point of entry into the detention system and will house all new admissions while they undergo classification. Those classified as very short term (seven days or less) will thus have immediate access to bail-expediting and other population management efforts aimed at getting them out of the system as quickly as possible.

After classification, those inmates expected to be in the system indefinitely will go to Rikers Island; the balance, including those who have special requirements (civil cases, for example, and all female detainees, who will be located in the second Manhattan facility) will remain at the borough houses. All inmates on trial will be returned to borough spaces for the duration of their court appearances, in order to minimize transportation.

Capital improvements to the borough houses (detailed in the Action Plan, next chapter) will aim to upgrade security, chiefly through sealing the buildings from all contact with the outside, and to provide a constitutionally acceptable level of habitability by addressing outstanding issues of noise, heat, light, air and sanitation. Length of stay will be minimized. Where detainee dormitory space is overoccupied, its density will be reduced. Life Safety Code deficiencies will be addressed immediately.

[Note: The above text is from the last part of Chapter IV,
pages IV - 26 through IV - 37.]
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