Know the Law: Detecting &
Special Note to Dispatchers or 911 Operators
Injuries often appear to be mild, but internal damages which are not visible may progress to a fatal outcome, and for documentation purposes, the victim should be encouraged to seek medical treatment or a paramedic should be called. This is especially true when the victim has a raspy voice or sounds literally "out of breath."
Often, these sounds are indicative of a narrowing of the air tube,
(Stridor) and will be taken very seriously in the Emergency Room.
Operators may ask if it is difficult or painful to swallow or to breathe. Also ask if there is a change in the voice. Furthermore, it is imperative that the tape recordings of the telephone conversations be preserved.
Remember over 50% of victims experience changes in their voice, which might be indicated on the tape. Additionally, hearsay statements on the tape may be admissible in court.
Some prosecutors will play the 911 tape to remind a victim who is reluctant to testify of the fear and other emotions she experienced at the time of the assault. This reminder will sometimes get her to testify.
for other injuries and cause
for Stridor injuries and cause
clearance and precautions
neck, face, eyelids, mouth, head, shoulder, chest, and chin
of soft tissue
of the neck
scan of the neck
typing of epithelial cells
Dr. George McClane, Emergency Physician &
In 70 to 80 percent of all domestic violence cases, the victim will
recant. Therefore law enforcement should anticipate this and plan on
prosecution based on the evidence, just like in a murder case. Efforts
should be made to investigate the cases like an attempted homicide case. It
is important to ask as many questions as possible at the earliest time
possible. The questions on the previous page are strongly encouraged.
Prosecutors, be sure to write the officers a commendation letter if
the report contains the answers to the above questions.
San Diego trained their law enforcement officers, dispatchers,
medical personnel and prosecutors. Immediately thereafter prosecutions
by Caran Curry,
SAMPLE POLICE REPORT
Furnished by ADA
(VICTIM / REPORTING PARTY)
At about 1900 hours, Maria met (name of accused [NOA]) who was driving her van. Maria got into the van and NOA drove to Dominion Avenue and "T" St. Maria asked NOA to give her van back. NOA got upset and grabbed her by the throat. Maria said NOA squeezed her throat and neck area causing her to gasp for air. Maria said NOA put one hand over her mouth. Maria said she started crying. She said NOA started pulling her hair, telling her to get out of the van. Maria said NOA told her "I don't care if I go to jail, you are going to die." Maria said NOA then drove her to 4563 Logan Avenue. She said NOA then took her keys to her apartment. Maria said she went to a friendís house and got her spare keys. She said she came back to her apartment at 4563 Logan Avenue and called the police.
I saw red marks on Maria's neck, which she said were caused when NOA strangled her. Based on Officer training and experience, I know that strangling a victim can cause serious bodily injuries. I have attended a domestic violence class taught by Gael Strack. During the class, I saw a video by Dr. George McClane of Scripps Memorial Hospital. Doctor McClane stated that only eleven pounds of pressure for ten seconds could cause a strangulation victim to go unconscious. This pressure is enough to do serious bodily injury.
had red marks on her neck area
photos of injuries were
by _____________ # ______________ and attached to the report.