#4 of 4: NYCHS presents the complete Foreword text of NYC Correction Commissioner Anna M. Kross' 12 Years of Progress Through Crisis Jan. 1, 1954 to Dec. 31, 1965. That text filled Pages 17 - 20 without any photos. The images in our presentation come from among the report's other 742 pages.

Text below, from Page 20 of the report, is the fourth page of the Foreword.

tion, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, under the Vocational Education Act of 1963.


Under the heading "In 1965 - 1966," Page 137 of the report features five photos related to inmate education. The image above left shows a SERVE program staffer explaining to visitors how Rikers P.S. 616 students learn garment trade skills. The image above right shows an inmate student in a MDT typing class getting some individual attention from the instructor.

The caption for the image left reads:

"The MDT building trades class employs an instructor who has come up through the vocational school system and has an awareness of the conflicts and interests of the student body."

The caption for the image below right reads:

The five-week program for training of service station operators at
"P.S. 616 under the MDT program acquaints boys with the basic servicing of auto engines and bodies.

"It attempts to create entry-level skills."

The caption for the image below reads: ,p>"The MDT program at Rikers Island includes an intensive group counseling service which seeks to aid the inmates in self-adjustment and to focus their interests vocationally and in positive future community roles."

The trade training aspects of the Manpower Development Training (MDT) project includes a specialized designed and equipped new school facility which comes under a grant provided by the Manpower Development and Training Act, United States Department of Labor.

The Board of Education has provided staff for the MDT phase of the program at the Adolescent Division Institution and the existing Public School 616 provides specialized training for the program within its school curriculum.

Volunteer services on behalf of prisoners are an innovation introduced by this Administration on an unprecedented scale, particularly at the House of Detention for Women, but also at the Adolescent Remand Shelter in Brooklyn and to some extent on Rikers Island.

For the first time in the history of the Department of Correction of the City of New York, the citizens of the City have been invited to enter the prison portals regularly, to assess the needs, and then to help fill them in every phase of the rehabilitation program.

Capital construction to relieve overcrowding and to provide adequate rehabilitation facilities has been entered into on a large scale by this Administration, following the blueprint laid down in our First Transmittal Letter of 1954.

The most significant portion of the building program is the correctional complex now nearing completion on Rikers Island, the newer portions of it made feasible by the Rikers Island Bridge, now under construction.

This Bridge, designed to make the prison community far more accessible, was planned and proposed by this Administration.

ON BALANCE we feel that we have proved that perpetuation of indiscriminate punitive imprisonment costs the community demonstrably more in finances, and infinitely more in terms of human suffering and deterioration than any foreseeable expenses that could be involved in the implementation of the scientific approach through a fully professionalized staff.


Above: Two images from Page 376 of the report -- the headline referring to the Rikers bridge "currently under construction" and an architect rendering that depicts how the bridge would connect the island to Astoria, Queens.

The caption for the rendering reads, in part: "It will enable the department to concentrate its major institutions at this site . . .

"The location of the NYC Correctional Institutions for Women and the Adolescent Remand Shelter at Rikers Island [were] made possible through the bridge . . .The ferry service had been inadequate even for the existing institutions on Rikers Island."

The caption for the image left reads, in part: "The cost of the bridge will be amortized, it is estimated in less than ten years through the elimination of the cost of around- the- clock ferry service . . . ."

The caption for the image below reads, in part: "The new bridge foundation rapidly approaches the Rikers island side. . . ."

In our proposed Institute of the Behavioral Sciences whose groundwork we have laid in our Correction Center on Rikers Island during these years of our stewardship and whose unparalleled human laboratory will be our prison population, we shall look to the scientific approach to ferret out the roots of criminality, so that effective methods can be developed for eradication of those roots.

Scientific knowledge and methodology, teamed with education of the public whose understanding and co-operation we seek, are the ingredients which form our hope for the future of correctional effectiveness.

Now that we are finally off the ground after years of effort to involve the schools of higher learning in the professionalization of Correction now is the time to forge forward with full speed ahead to the firm establishment of our Institute of the Behavioral Science in the doctoral and advance areas.

It is our hope that this Institute once it is brought into corporate being, will master all the behavioral sciences into a full-scale and all-out effort to break through the impasse that humanity faces on so many fronts, and that now fills our correctional institutions to overflowing.

Rehabilitation of offenders has been our constant intent from the very beginning of our tenure. though all too often it has been hampered by the realities of budgetary and personnel shortages and of overcrowding that have plagued us from the very beginning and that have grown worse with the years, and by all the imponderables that can be included under the heading of traditionalism.

Our First Transmittal Letter, written after the grueling experiences of our first several months in 1954, contained an evaluation of the deplorable conditions that confronted this Administration on its assumption of duty, and detailed the essence of the rehabilitation program that we have been trying so hard to achieve during these twelve years of PROGRESS THROUGH CRISIS.

[In printed book, the Foreword text concludes here.]
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